- What does hazard control mean?
- What are the advantages of pipelining?
- What is instruction hazard?
- What do you mean by hazard?
- What is a load use data hazard?
- What are hazards in pipelining?
- How do you overcome data hazards with dynamic scheduling?
- What is anti dependence in pipeline?
- How can structural hazards be resolved?
- How do you overcome control hazards in pipelining?
- What is read after write hazard?
- How do you solve a pipeline hazard?
- What is branch penalty?
What does hazard control mean?
A hazard control program consists of all steps necessary to protect workers from exposure to a substance or system, the training and the procedures required to monitor worker exposure and their health to hazards such as chemicals, materials or substance, or other types of hazards such as noise and vibration..
What are the advantages of pipelining?
Advantages of PipeliningInstruction throughput increases.Increase in the number of pipeline stages increases the number of instructions executed simultaneously.Faster ALU can be designed when pipelining is used.Pipelined CPU’s works at higher clock frequencies than the RAM.More items…
What is instruction hazard?
There are situations, called hazards, that prevent the next instruction in the instruction stream from being executing during its designated clock cycle. Hazards reduce the performance from the ideal speedup gained by pipelining. … They arise from the pipelining of branches and other instructions that change the PC.
What do you mean by hazard?
A hazard is any source of potential damage, harm or adverse health effects on something or someone. Basically, a hazard is the potential for harm or an adverse effect (for example, to people as health effects, to organizations as property or equipment losses, or to the environment).
What is a load use data hazard?
and STALL lw A load-use hazard requires delaying the execution of the using instruction until the result from the loading instruction can be made available to the using instruction.
What are hazards in pipelining?
Pipeline hazards are situations that prevent the next instruction in the instruction stream from executing during its designated clock cycles. Any condition that causes a stall in the pipeline operations can be called a hazard.
How do you overcome data hazards with dynamic scheduling?
execution order to reduce stalls dynamically at runtime. Better dynamic exploitation of instruction-level parallelism (ILP). at compile time (ambiguous dependencies). processor cannot remove true data dependencies, but tries to avoid or reduce stalling.
What is anti dependence in pipeline?
Anti-dependence: , and reads something before overwrites it. Flow (data) dependence: , and writes before something read by. Output dependence: , and both write the same memory location.
How can structural hazards be resolved?
There are several methods used to deal with hazards, including pipeline stalls/pipeline bubbling, operand forwarding, and in the case of out-of-order execution, the scoreboarding method and the Tomasulo algorithm.
How do you overcome control hazards in pipelining?
The following are solutions that have been proposed for mitigating aspects of control hazards:Pipeline stall cycles. Freeze the pipeline until the branch outcome and target are known, then proceed with fetch. … Branch delay slots. … Branch prediction. … Indirect branch prediction. … Return address stack (RAS).
What is read after write hazard?
A Write-After-Read hazard occurs when an instruction tries to write to a register which has not yet been read by a previously issued, but as yet uncompleted instruction. This hazard cannot occur in most systems, but could occur in the CDC 6600 because of the way instructions were issued to the arithmetic units.
How do you solve a pipeline hazard?
Control Hazards Reducing the stall from branch hazards by moving the zero test and branch calculation into ID phase of pipeline. It uses a separate adder to compute the branch target address during ID. Because the branch target addition happens during ID, it will happen for all instructions.
What is branch penalty?
Branch penalty : The number of stalls introduced during the branch operations in the pipelined processor is known as branch penalty. NOTE : As we see that the target address is available after the ID stage, so the number of stalls introduced in the pipeline is 1.